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The basics of speakers

1, the speaker

There are many types of speakers: according to its conversion method can be divided into electric, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, digital and other; according to the diaphragm structure can be divided into single cone, composite cone, compound horn, with the same Shaft, etc., according to the beginning of the diaphragm can be divided into cone-type, the top of the ball, flat, belt and other; according to the playback frequency can be divided into high frequency, intermediate frequency, low frequency and full band speaker; Can be divided into external magnetic, internal magnetic, dual magnetic and shield and other types; according to the magnetic properties can be divided into ferrite magnets, neodymium boron magnets, aluminum nickel cobalt magnet speakers; Sub-paper and non-paper cone speakers.

A, electric speaker is the most widely used, it uses the voice coil and the constant magnetic field interaction between the diaphragm vibration and sound. Electric woofers to cone-type majority, midrange speakers for the cone-type or the top of the ball, the tweeters with the top of the ball and belt, the type of commonly used.

B, cone-type speaker structure is simple, high energy conversion efficiency. It uses the diaphragm material to pulp material, or mixed with wool, silk, carbon fiber and other materials to increase its rigidity, damping and waterproof performance. The new generation of electric cone speakers use non-paper diaphragm materials such as polypropylene, mica carbonized polypropylene, carbon fiber textile, bulletproof cloth, hard aluminum foil, CD corrugated, glass fiber and other composite materials, improve performance.

C, the top of the dome has a soft dome and hard dome of the points. Soft ball-shaped speaker diaphragm film silk, silk, impregnated with phenolic resin cotton, chemical fiber and composite materials, which is characterized by replay beats by dre cheap sound soft; hard dome speaker diaphragm aluminum, titanium and beryllium alloy and other materials, It is characterized by crisp playback quality.

D, trumpet speaker radiation and cone-type speaker is different, which is in the diaphragm vibration, the sound through the horn and then spread out. Its characteristics are electro-acoustic conversion and radiation efficiency is high, distance, distortion is small, but the playback frequency and directivity narrow.

E, the voice coil of the belt speaker is directly formed on the diaphragm (aluminum alloy polyimide film, etc.), and the voice coil is directly coupled with the diaphragm. The alternating magnetic field produced by the voice coil interacts with the constant magnetic field, so that the belt diaphragm vibrates and radiates the sound wave. It is characterized by fast response, small distortion, replay sound quality, good sense of hierarchy.

2, the box

The box is used to eliminate the short circuit of the loudspeaker unit, suppress its acoustic resonance, broaden its frequency response range and reduce distortion. Speaker box shape structure of the bookshelf and floor of the points, as well as vertical and horizontal points. The internal structure of the box is closed, inverted, banded, empty paper basin, labyrinth, symmetrical drive and trumpet and other forms, the most used is closed, inverted and band The

Floor speakers are large speakers, box height above 750MM, shelves speaker box height below 750MM, 450MM ~ 750MM between the medium-sized bookshelf speakers, 450MM the following for the small bookshelf speakers.

Home theater system for the front speakers for vertical speakers, the use of bookshelf-style, but also the use of floor-style, which depends on the size of the audio-visual room, power amplifier size and personal preferences may be. Usually, for the audio-visual room in the 15 square meters below, should use medium-sized bookshelf speakers; less than 10 square meters should use a small bookcase; more than 15 square meters of the room, you can choose medium-sized bookshelf speakers or floor box. Front speaker, center speaker and surround speakers are mostly inverted phase design, followed by closed and 1/4 wavelength loading, labyrinth and so on. Subwoofer with band-pass and double-cavity double-open-type majority, followed by inverted phase, closed.

3, frequency divider

The divider has the power divider and the electronic frequency divider, the main role is band division, amplitude frequency characteristic and frequency frequency characteristic correction, the impedance compensation and the attenuation and so on.

Power divider, also known as passive rear divider, is divided after the power amplifier. It is mainly composed of inductance, resistance, capacitance and other passive components of the filter network, the band of audio signals were sent to the corresponding band of speakers to reproduce. It is characterized by low production cost, simple structure, suitable for amateur production, but the insertion loss is large, the efficiency is low and the transient characteristic is poor.

The electronic frequency divider, also known as the active prescaler, consists of a variety of resistive components and active devices such as transistors or integrated circuits. It is a simulation of the preamplifier and power amplifier signal lines Electronic filter, the preamplifier output audio signal can be divided into different frequency bands, and then sent to the power amplifier for amplification. It is characterized by spectral balance of each band, mutual interference is small, the output dynamic range, itself has a certain ability to amplify, insert the loss of small. But the circuit structure to be relatively complex.

The frequency divider beats headphones cheap divides the frequency divides, divides the frequency and the frequency divides to the frequency. Two frequency is the entire frequency band of the audio signal is divided into high frequency and low frequency two frequency bands; three frequency is the whole frequency band is divided into high frequency, intermediate frequency and low frequency three frequency bands; four frequency divided by three Ultra low frequency band.

Crossover frequency and frequency slope is a direct impact on the frequency of frequency division frequency.

The crossover point refers to the intersection of two adjacent speakers (such as treble and bass in the two-way frequency, the treble and midrange, midrange, and bass) at a frequency, usually The frequency of the half of the power output in the two loudspeakers (ie, -3dB points) is determined by the parameters such as the frequency characteristics and the distortion of each speaker. Usually divide the frequency divider divides between 1KHZ ~ 3KHZ, and divides 250Hz ~ 1KHZ and 5KHZ.

The slope of the frequency (also called the attenuation slope of the filter) is used to reflect the falling slope of the following frequency response curve, expressed in decibels / octaves (dB / oct). (6 dB / oct), second beats headphones cheap order (12 dB / oct), third order (18 dB / oct) and fourth beats headphones on sale order (24 dB / oct), the higher the order, the frequency after crossover The slope of the curve is greater. The more commonly used is the second order frequency slope. High-order dividers can increase the slope, but the phase shift is large; low-order frequency division can produce a more gentle slope and a good transient response, but the amplitude characteristics of poor. Determine the order of high and low bass filter should take into account the speaker itself at the crossover point of the phase of the good convergence problem.